Salient White Elephant

May 19, 2009

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam Construction - 1

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam Construction - 2

jeannie4

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam Construction - 3

Genie

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam Construction - 4

Now take a bunch of the structures depicted in the last step and connect them together with arcs to form a giant circular wind dam:

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam

Genie

Drive System

Notice that since a given “Totem Pole” of HAWT rotors are stacked one on top of another, they can share a common drive chain. This common drive chain ultimately drives a sprocket that drives the generator shaft. The generator is located in a small compartment on the ground, beneath its “Totem pole” of turbine rotors.

Does This Turbine Require a Yawing System?

I can think of two variations of the I Dream of Genie Wind Dam as regards the yaw drive. The first version would always have all of the rotors turning, regardless of which direction the wind is blowing in. This would be easier to explain if I could draw a nicer 3D model, but I’m not much of an artist, so bear with me here. All rotors can rotate simultaneously because some of the high speed wind moving around the outside of the dam seeks the “smallest radial path”, meaning it will eventually force its way through a rotor to the inside of the wind dam. The wind outside the dam that does not manage to find its way into this smaller radial space will instead shoot off the bowed out end of one of the wall sections (much like the wind shoots off the trailing edge of an airfoil). This will create a low pressure region in the smaller radial locations that “suddenly appear” next to this high speed air at the moment it shoots off that bowed out edge of the wall. This low pressure sucks low speed high pressure air from the inside of the dam through the rotor that is near the high speed air that is shooting off the bowed out end of the wall.

In the variation just described, the rotors do indeed need to assume one of two yaw angles, each separated by 180 degrees. (Alternatively, the blades may have variable pitch so that they can accommodate the flow of wind in either direction through the rotor.)

The other variation would have doors that can block the “hole” that is occupied by the rotor. In this variation, all the rotors that pass wind from the outside of the dam to the inside of the dam (given wind direction) have their doors opened, while the doors of all the other rotors are closed, rendering those rotors inoperable. Or you could do it the other way around, allowing air to be sucked out of the inside of the wind dam, but not to be forced from the outside of the wind dam to the inside. In this case a yaw system is not required. This is so because the door will always be closed when wind has a tendency to flow through the accompanying rotor in the “wrong direction”.

Third World Variation

Think of how easy it would be to build a low cost variation of this machine for the developing world! Imagine that instead of building a circular dam, we’ll build one that is polygonal, with an approximately circular shape. Maybe the circle has 10 or 12 sides. So we put concrete columns or telephone poles up in the shape of the polygon. We have one set of telephone poles for the “smaller radius” polygon, and another set for the “larger radius” polygon. Now we string cable between the poles. The following diagram shows just one side of the polygon, and uses blue to represent the cables connecting the “larger radius” polygon, and green to represent the cables connecting the “smaller radius” polygon:

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam, Third World Variation, 1

Now take some of that beautiful multi-colored fabric like they have in India and wrap it back and forth around the cables to imitate the I Dream of Genie Channels:

I Dream of Genie Wind Dam, Third World Variation, 2

When wind flows around sharp edges, it tends to create turbulence. To avoid this tendency, we might like to use something with a larger diameter than cables. How about we use cheap PVC pipe? Then we can string the cables through the inside of the PVC pipe. This way the cables can provide a great deal of strength and stiffness to the structure, yet the cables will have no adverse affect on the aerodynamics.

For More Information on Wind Dams

Genie
For further information related to this idea, see the earlier Salient White Elephant post: Circular Wind Dam.

May 12, 2009

Practical Artificial Pressure Differential Wind Turbine

Explanation of Artificial Pressure Differential Turbine 1

Explanation of Artificial Pressure Differential Turbine 2

In this way we have brought the low pressure on the downwind side of the parachute to the top of the tower.

Now, in your mind’s eye, eliminate the low pressure tube, and make the parachute whole again. Now attach a high pressure tube to the vertex of the parachute:

Explanation of Artificial Pressure Differential Turbine 3

Now we have techniques for bringing the high pressure of the upwind side of the parachute back to the tower, and for bringing the low pressure of the downwind side of the parachute back to the tower. Next, we build both the high pressure and low pressure extending tubes into the parachute at the same time. The low pressure tube has the smaller diameter, and it connects to the hole in the vertex of the parachute which has the same diameter. The diameter of the high pressure tube is larger than the diameter of the low pressure tube, and it encircles the low pressure tube so that a cross-section of the two tubes makes them look like concentric circles.

The next step is to transmit the high and low pressures to the bottom of the tower using the same technique. The tower is actually two towers – an inner smaller diameter low pressure tube with an outer larger diameter high pressure tube surrounding it so that a cross-section of the two makes them look like concentric circles. The high pressure and low pressure regions are connected at the bottom of the tower and, as expected, a HAWT rotor (with a vertical axis) is positioned between the two. The rotor, gearbox, and generator are at all at ground level.

The only thing I haven’t explained is how the low pressure and high pressure tubes make a right angle turn at the top of the tower. I was planning to draw some pictures of this, but I don’t think it’s really necessary. There are probably a million ways to do this. I will just note here that the parachute part automatically seeks the downwind position, and so it doesn’t require a yaw system. The right angle joint can be yawed, or it can simply be a cylindrical piece with vents positioned radially about its center. The vents have doors in them that can open and close to simulate yawing, though few moving parts would actually be required. (To illustrate, imagine an aerial view of this machine. Suppose the high and low pressure tubes approach the tower near the 9 o’clock position. Then the vents in the cylindrical piece at the top of the tower that are at positions 8 o’clock, 8:30, 9:00, 9:30, and 10 o’clock would all be open, while all of the other vents would be closed tight and aerodynamically sealed.)

The tower supports little weight, and it can be fitted with vents to let storm winds pass through unimpeded. This means the tower can be very light in weight, very inexpensive (relative to a typical HAWT tower), and it can have a large diameter if necessary. The parachute and the fabric part of the low pressure and high pressure tubes may have similar vents so that they also create little drag during storm winds. Maybe the parachute and fabric vents could even be somehow rolled up and stored inside the tower during storm winds.

Finally, note that the tower could be incredibly high. This is true because it supports little weight, has little overturning moment in storm winds, and can accomodate multi-level guy wires that can attach to the tower at any elevation, including at the very top of the tower!

Artificial Pressure Differential Turbine

Yawing Variation

Now we might imagine a long horizontal tube extending from the top of the tower. The supporting cords that tether the parachute are attached to the end of the horizontal tube that is far from the top of the tower. This way, the “vertex” (downwindmost end) of the parachute is right at the top of the tower, and the low and high pressure regions may easily be connected to the vertical (tower) low and high pressure concentric tubes. The horizontal tube yaws to align with the wind.

There are many other variations like this. Maybe we just build something that looks like a giant radio telescope dish, and attach its vertex to the top of the tower. This might not be so ridiculous if the parabolic dish has slats that automatically open when the pressure differential between the upwind and downwind sides of the slats exceeds a safe value.

May 10, 2009

Geodesic Dome Turbine

Start with a Geodesic Dome:

Geodesic DomeNow Cut a hole in the top, and cover the hole with a shroud that can yaw in order to keep its opening pointing upwind. Also add vents near the lower part of the dome can than be either opened or closed:

Geodesic Dome TurbineThe variation depiced above has air flowing into the hole at the top of the dome and out of the vents below. I’m not sure this is the best arrangement. The alternative would be to have air flowing into the lower vents and out of the hole in the top. In this variation, the shroud over the top hole in the diagram would be yawed (rotated) 180 degrees, and (I’m guessing) the left two vents in the diagram would be open, while the other vents would be closed. I guess one of these ideas is probably aerodynamically superior to the other, but I don’t know which is which. It’s worth noting that the real low pressure should be at the top of the dome, since this is where the wind has been accelerated the most. Seems like it might make sense then to let the wind flow in to the lower vents (where pressure is naturally higher), and out through the hole in the top. I don’t know much about the theory of fluid flow, so I’ll leave the rest to those of you who have the academic background to model and solve a problem like this.

Before ending this post, however, I’d like to point out an aspect of this idea that is particularly intriquing. Since you can have lots and lots of vents, but only one hole in the top of the dome, it stands to reason that it should be easy to provide the dome with many square feet worth of vents, given the area of the hole at the top of the dome. This means that the velocity of wind flowing through the vents may be caused to vary by only a small amount relative to the velocity of the wind outside the dome. For this reason, it would seem that the vast part of the lower part of the dome could be made to be quite comfortable for people, and this means the dome can have alternative uses. For example, the dome could house a giant botanical garden for the public to enjoy. If you really wanted to control the environment for the people inside, two concentric geodesic domes could be placed one on top of another, creating a thin (say) 40 foot wide gap between the two ceilings. The gap could be used for wind flow and the harvesting of its energy, while the part inside the lower (smallest) dome could be used for just about anything – commercial office space, a manufacturing plant, basketball court, … you name it!

Retrofit Option

Depending on how attractive this structure could be made to be, and on its cost effectiveness, we might imagine putting one of these things on top of an existing structure. Rooftop wind turbines are generally frowned upon, but I think this is mostly because of the harshly turbulent conditions within which a rooftop turbine must normally operate. The dome solves this problem in several ways. First, it doesn’t have any sharp turbulence producing edges. Second, its rotors are small and therefore less sensitive to turbulence, and they can be located in a short cylindrical shroud that is equipped with the same kinds of turbulence attenuating apparatus as is found in wind tunnels. And finally, if a small rotor does eventually develop a crack due to turbulence-induced fatique, simply replace it. It’s small, and so the cost of replacing it is no big deal.

I saw a medium sized, three story motel the other day that looked like it could easily accomodate a Geodesic Dome Turbine. If the dome had enough vents to open during a wind storm, it would seem likely that the motel could accomodate the turbine in spite of the fact that the building designers had not accounted for the extra load.

April 29, 2009

Flow Accelerator that Yaws by Force of Drag

VAWT with Shroud that Yaws by Force of Drag

HAWT with Shroud that Yaws by Force of Drag

April 27, 2009

VAWT Forest With OmniDirectional Flow Accelerators

This post describes a field of stationary flow accelerators that I hope will be effective for any wind direction. Flow accelerators, or shrouds, are generally regarded as closer to science fiction than to a practical and economical idea. I think this may be due to the following problems:

  • It is difficult to yaw a large structure.
  • If the yaw system fails during high winds, the structure will fail.
  • The complexity and cost of the structure are probably greater than the complexity and cost of simply scaling up a more conventional and well understood design.

The VAWT Forest with OmniDirectional Flow Accelerators attempts to solve these problems as follows:

  • The flow accelerators are fixed. They do not yaw, and they rest on the ground.
  • The flow accelerators are equipped with vents that allow high winds to pass through the structures without generating much drag.
  • The cost and complexity is low. The flow accelerators are basically nothing more than oblong shaped brick walls.

The diagram shows Savonius rotors, but the design might work with other types of VAWT rotors. However, because of the relatively unpredictable and complex flow patterns that are likely to be created with this design, I am assuming that the Savonius might be a good choice, because it is mechanically and aerodynamically robust, and because it is relatively insensitive to turbulence:Savonius Forest With OmniDirectional Flow Accelerators

What’s so great about this idea? It seems incredible that you could develop a fixed flow accelerator that is equally (or almost equally) effective for every wind direction. The trick here, of course, is that only the accelerators that are in the interior of the forest are equally effective for every wind direction. The ones on the periphery of the forest may not accelerate flow at all for certain wind directions! But the design is effective because we can make the forest very very large – with many accelerators and many turbines. In this case, the number of turbines and accelerators that are at the periphery of the forest account for only a very small fraction of the total number turbines and accelerators.

Here’s a simpler way to make the flow accelerators that might be less expensive and that still avoids making the wind flow around sharp corners:

Alternate Design for Flow Accelerators

I think this idea looks pretty good as is, but we can experiment further by putting circular shaped energy exchangers over the large empty places formed by the flow accelerators. These energy exchangers are able to rotate in order to align with wind direction. The slotted channels cause the oncoming (high energy) wind to flow down into the empty areas between the flow accelerators, and they also cause low energy air that has already flowed through the rotors to flow up and out of these empty areas in the downstream direction:

Counter-Sloping Energy Exchange Channels

Savonius Forest With OmniDirectional Flow Accelerators and Rotating Energy Exchangers

Another variation has a tarp lying across the roofs of all the flow accelerators, and places towers along the four edges of the Savonius Forest that support angled tarps. The following diagram omits the towers and the tarps that would be in the front and the rear of the view shown. (That is, only the towers and tarps on the right and left are shown – the ones in the front and back are omitted.)

Savonius Forest With OmniDirectional Flow Accelerators and Guyed Tower Supported Flow Accelerators

I am not an aerodynamicist, but I have always had the feeling that ducted rotors waste a lot of the accelerated flow created by the shroud. Wind tends to veer around obstructions. This is the reason for the Betz limit – the more energy you extract from the wind, the more you are slowing it down, the greater is the obstruction to flow, and the more the oncoming wind veers to avoid the obstruction. The idea proposed here is that more rotors should be placed in the path of the wind that is attempting to make its way around the turbines. Now I realize that this smacks of an “eternal motion” kind of logic. Isn’t it true that all of the turbines and all of the flow accelerators may be regarded as a single energy harvesting device, and that the Betz limit will apply to this large composite “turbine” just as well as to a single ducted rotor? Well… I’m not sure. The situation is complicated somewhat because the rotors are dispersed in the upwind and downwind directions as well as in the cross-wind directions. But let’s just suppose that the dispersed nature of this design is indeed subject to the same limitations as a single ducted turbine. Doesn’t it still enjoy the advantage of being omnidirectional? And isn’t it easier to design and build a number of small rotors instead of a single giant one? And isn’t it nice that the small rotors will spin at high rpm, thus reducing torque? And there is an aspect of the omnidirectional nature of this machine that I can’t quite wrap my mind around. It is as though the energy is filtered through the turbines like the way you might imagine rainwater making its way down to the aquafer. That is, if the pressure becomes unbalanced for some reason, the wind just might decide to flow in the crosswind direction. This seems possible since once inside the maze of flow accelerators, air has no “direct contact” with the wind outside the maze. (If this doesn’t sound very scientific, then you are obviously not a graduate, as I am, of the Billy Mays two week engineering correspondence course with complimentary “Senior Engineering Manager Your Name Here” wall plaque.)

There is another feature of this design that appeals to me as well. It seems to me that in the past, designers of ducted machines have assumed that a flow accelerator must be symmetrical. This seems like a critical mistake to me. One of the problems with flow accelerators is that they are huge, unweildy, expensive, and vulnerable to damage in storm winds. But the dispersed “Forest” idea shows that you aren’t constrained to expanding in symmetrical directions – you can simply ignore the vertical direction and spend your money expanding in the horizontal direction alone. Or, more likely, you can develop mathematical design techniques that can predict the optimal aspect ratio.

April 26, 2009

Segmented Circular Wind Dam With Adjustable Flow Accelerators

Segmented Circular Wind Dam With Adjustable Flow Accelerators

Almost all of the AeroArchitecture (non-turbine) part of this machine is fixed. The only part of the flow manipulating structure that is not fixed is the curved blue panels. The rotational angle of these panels is regulated by the turbine controller, and is a function of wind direction. I have drawn these panels at what I believe to be approximately the correct rotational angles given wind direction, but of course this is only an intuitive guess. I think some detailed aerodynamic modeling will be required to determine the optimum angles for the panels. However, let me explain the reasoning behind my guess.

Let’s begin by pretending that the adjustable panels and the turbines are not present, and that the circular wall does not have segments cut out of it. In other words, the wind is flowing around a very tall round wall. In this case the high pressure region will be around the most upwind part of the wall. The flow accelerates to get around the wall, and I think the lowest pressure will be approximately at the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock positions. The flow about the rest of the wall is oscillatory and unstable. Vortices are shed in alternating fashion, first from one side of the wall and then from the other. For example, the flow may detach at about 4:30, and a clockwise vortex (with a vertical axis) will spin off of the wall at that point. Then the flow will detach at about 7:30, and a counter-clockwise vortex will spin off the wall at that point. Then the pattern will repeat. So the first thing to notice is that it may be desirable to add adjustable panels at 2:30, 4:30, 7:30, and 10:30 in order to prevent the vortex shedding. I have not drawn these panels because I don’t know if they will actually be necessary. Remember that the wind is being de-energized by the 4 turbines, and maybe this will be sufficient for stabilizing the flow. In any case, let’s forget about the vortex shedding for a moment, and consider the system as depicted above (with the segments removed from the wall, the curved adjustable blue panels, and the turbines present just as depicted in the diagram).

As I said, the high pressure occurs at the 12 o’clock position. As the diagram shows, the wind is flowing more or less straight at the 12 o’clock turbine. In this case, both the adjustable curved panels and the curved parts of the wall that extend downstream from the turbine act to concentrate and accelerate the flow through the 12 o’clock turbine.

Now let’s consider the 3 and 9 o’clock turbines. I am reasoning that the wind is moving slow and is at a relatively high pressure in the regions just inside the wall near these two turbines. This is true because the wind has been forced to flow through a very large cross-section inside the wall, and also because the wind has been de-energized somewhat as it passed through the 12 o’clock turbine. On the other hand, the velocity is at a maximum and the pressure at a minimum in the areas that are outside of the wall and outside of the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock turbines. This is true because the wind has had to speed up to get around the wall, and also because it has yet to pass through any turbines, and so it hasn’t had energy extracted from it yet. Based on all this reasoning, I have elected to orient the adjustable panels so as to further encourage the flow that already wants to happen anyway – that is, the flow from slow high pressure inside the dam to fast low pressure outside the dam. When you consider what normally happens when wind flows through a turbine, you see that it is not exactly as I have described:

  • Flow through a traditional turbine is from high velocity and high pressure to low velocity and low pressure.
  • The flow that I just described is from low velocity and high pressure to high velocity and low pressure.

So maybe my reasoning is flawed. Of course, the rules will be changed when flow is manipulated, and in this case we are not only manipulating the flow, but we are manipulating it a great deal with a very very large structure. So I guess the only way to figure out whether my reasoning is correct is to build a sophisticated aerodynamic model and see what it says. Anyway… if you take a look at the hypothetical path of flow I’ve drawn near the left side of the diagram, you can see that the flow will be exiting the trailing edge of the adjustable panel at high velocity, just like the way air exits the trailing edge of an airplane wing. So I am reasoning that this flow will draw the dead air out of the inside of the dam and through the turbine.

Now for the 6 o’clock turbine. This one seems pretty straightforward. On the one hand, you might expect that the adjustable panels and the fixed curved parts of the wall that extend upwind of the 6 o’clock turbine should together look exactly like the flow accelerating structure around the 12 o’clock turbine. The reason I haven’t drawn it that way is because assuming we are able to successfully prevent the flow from detaching from the wall and spinning into a vortex, then the flow will be wanting to curve in the downstream direction as it continues its journey away from the wind dam in the downwind direction. In this case, the panels need to be rotated toward this path somewhat so that the flow doesn’t collide with the most downwind end of the adjustable panel and spin off of that sharp edge in a vortex.

April 25, 2009

Spoked Wind Dam

This is an extremely simple idea. Walls are built that radiate like the spokes of a wheel, and a VAWT is placed at the “axis of the wheel”. That’s all there is to it!!!

Spoked Wind Dam

If desired, the lower edges of the walls may be raised up off the ground so that the walls do not impede the movement of the combine. In this case, pillars hold the walls up off the ground.

Underground Wind Turbine

The two diagrams below show aerial views of the underground wind turbine. The first diagram omits the doors that cover the trenches.

Underground Wind Turbine

The doors are visible in the following diagram. The doors may be opened so that either long edge may be raised, while the opposite long edge remains at ground level. Because the diagram isn’t three dimensional, it might be a little hard to comprehend at first. But it is easier to understand if you keep in mind that the width of the doors is exactly the same as the width of the trench that it covers below:

Underground Wind Turbine Showing How Doors Open to Capture Wind

Improved Reciprocating Water Pump

This post shows how the piston of the old water pumping windmill can be moved up to ground level:

Improved Reciprocating Water Pump

When the piston goes down, it pushes water down through the small tube into an extremely taught rubber bulb (sphere at bottom of small tube). This causes the bulb to expand, which expands the water in the region above the lowest check valve and below the upper check valve, thus raising the water column in the larger cylinder and ejecting some water into the storage tank. Now when the piston goes up, the combination of the suction created at the top of the small tube and the pressure provided by the taught rubber bulb at the bottom of the small tube are sufficient for lifting the column of water in the small tube. This returns the system to its beginning state, and the piston is ready to begin another cycle with its downstroke.

Shielded VAWT

This post proposes to increase the efficiency of a VAWT with yawing shields. In the case of the Darrieus, for example, the drag on the blade as it travels in the upwind direction is reduced by diverting the flow with a shield. The flow that is not diverted is slowed because the channel becomes wider in the middle. The flow on the opposite side of the rotor (left side in the diagram below) is not manipulated because it is already in the direction of blade velocity, and it therefore already reduces drag. As for the Savonius, I’m not sure if the idea will work, but I’ve drawn my best guess at how to augment the efficiency of the turbine using either one or two shields.

Shielded VAWT

Tipi Cross-Section Circular Wind Dam

This wind dam is made of fabric, and is supported by very tall guyed towers. Its cross-section is shaped like an American Indian Tipi:

Tipi Cross-Section Circular Wind Dam

The fabric on either side of the tower may be rolled up to the top of the tower or rolled down to ground level. The fabric on both sides of all towers can be rolled up or down to minimize the drag profile during storm winds. The fabric on the upwind sides of the towers that are on the upwind side of the dam is rolled up to concentrate the flow. The fabric on the downwind sides of the towers that are on the downwind side of the dam is rolled up to further concentrate the flow. The operation of the machine is very similar to the operation of the Circular Wind Dam. Two wind dams may be constructed as described here so that they form concentric rings. In this way, the concentric rings variation of the Circular Wind Dam may be mimicked.

Horizontal Savonius Circular Wind Dam

Horizontal Savonius Circular Wind Dam

April 24, 2009

Circular Wind Dam

The Circular Wind Dam first described in this post may not provide much improvement over the current state of the art. However, it lays the groundwork for some variations that I think may be very viable indeed. These variations are presented toward the end of this post, but in case you’re in a hurry, here’s a general idea of the type of machine that we will be working toward:

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Also, make sure you read the section entitled Advantages of the Wind Dam Over Current State of the Art Wind Turbines, as this section presents some very very powerful ideas.

Circular Wind Dam

A circular hallway is made of brick or concrete. It is extremely high, and it has an extremely large diameter. A number of walls block the hallway inside:

Aerial View of Circular Wind Dam, Twelve Walls Block the Inside of the Hallway

Here is a cross-section of the Wind Dam that shows one of the walls that block the hallway. The wall has a hole cut into it, and a wind turbine rotor captures the energy of the wind that flows through the hole:

Cross-Sectional View of Circular Wind Dam Showing Wall and Turbine Rotor

The outside of the Wind Dam has holes cut into it. These holes have sliding doors that are kind of like garage doors. The doors can block the holes, or they can open the holes to the outside air:

Circular Wind Dam

The holes near the upwind side of the dam and the holes near the downwind side of the dam are opened, while all of the other holes are kept closed. Now wind flows through the hallway from the upwind side to the downwind side. The wind turns the turbine rotors that are embedded into the walls that partially block the hallway, and the turbine rotors drive generators to make electricity. The turbine rotors and generators work just like the rotors and generators on a standard wind turbine, except that gearboxes might not be required between the turbine rotors and generators of the Wind Dam. This is true because the Wind Dam and the holes that house the turbine rotors have a concentrating effect on the wind, so that wind flows through the holes and turbine rotors at a much higher velocity than the velocity of the wind outside the dam.

Concentric Hallways Variation

A wall is added inside of the hallway that separates it into two hallways that form concentric rings:

Circular Wind Dam, Concentric Hallways Variation

The previous variation of the Wind Dam had holes in the outside wall – that is, the wall that faces the outside of the dam. In addition to these “outside holes”, the Concentric Hallways Wind Dam has holes that face the inside of the dam (the area enclosed by the dam). The holes facing the inside of the dam are controlled in exactly the same way as the holes that face the outside of the dam. That is, only the holes that are near the upwind and downwind sides of the dam are kept open, and all of the other holes are kept closed. Oddly, wind flows through the inside (smaller diameter) hallway from the downwind side to the upwind side.

Since wind flows through the hallways in opposite directions, we can replace the horizontal axis rotors with a vertical axis rotors. There are many ways to do this, but for the sake of making the diagram easy to draw, let’s use Savonius rotors with flat vanes. Notice that wind will always flow in opposite directions through the hallways regardless of which direction the outside wind is blowing:

Circular Wind Dam, Concentric Hallways VariationHere’s a diagram that shows how wind flows through the dam:

Circular Wind Dam Concentric Hallways Variation Showing Approximate Flow of Wind

Advantages of the Wind Dam Over Current State of the Art Wind Turbines

  • Most of your investment in a current State of the Art Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (SOTAHAWT) is used to purchase sensitive, short life components that are difficult to design and that are easy to break. The majority of an investment in a Wind Dam purchases the structure itself – basically just a pile of bricks – and this investment will probably still be productive 100 years from today. (Think of the great hydro-dams in the NorthWestern United States.) And if somebody knocks a hole into the wall… big deal – just fill it in with a few more bricks. But suppose instead that an expensive component on one of your SOTAHAWTs fails. Suppose have to replace a turbine blade that is 150 feet long! You buy a new blade, wait 3 months for it to be manufactured, somehow get that 150 foot blade to the site and then weave it in between the other turbines, hire a crane, take the old blade down, put the new one up. You see what I mean – most of your investment might as well be stored in a crystal goldfish bowl that is balanced on top of a 300 foot FM radio tower. My goodness… how can you even sleep at night!? I don’t know how large the turbine rotor blades will be in the Wind Dam, but even if they are 20 feet long… so what? They don’t represent a significant fraction of your investment, and repairing and replacing them are no big deal.
  • The Wind Dam is virtually indestructible. It can assume a very low drag profile during storm winds by opening all of the doors in the inside and outside walls of the dam. Its drag profile may be further reduced by installing sliding doors into the wall that separates the two concentric hallways. These sliding doors may also be opened during storm winds to keep the drag profile to a minimum. No large sensitive components (rotor blades, etc) are required to withstand storm wind drag forces.
  • Wind turbine rotors, gearboxes (if required), and generators are all located inside the Wind Dam. Thus, these relatively sensitive components are well protected from wind, rain, snow, and other weather. And it would be easy to provide heating for these components during cold weather.
  • The Wind Dam is very quiet because noisy components are located inside the dam.
  • Electrical components are virtually immune to lightning strikes. This is true because these components are housed inside the dam, and because the dam has lightning rods on top to direct lightning strikes away from sensitive components.
  • The life of a Wind Dam will probably far exceed the 20 or 30 year lifespan of your typical SOTAHAWT. It is obvious that this would hold true for the structural part of the Wind Dam (the bricks). What is less obvious is that smaller rotors that turn at higher speeds that drive higher voltage electrical equipment, all of which live in the luxurious indoor environment of the wind dam, will also last much longer than the massive SOTAHAWT components that are stressed, fatigued, and pounded by wind, rain, snow, ice, cold temperature, humidity, and lightning year after year after year. Also, smaller components last longer than larger components because they are easier to design and because they are subjected to less vigorous mechanical abuse than are larger components.
  • Since the wind turbine rotors and electrical equipment live inside the Wind Dam, it’s hard to imagine the machine posing any danger whatsoever to the public. Can you imagine what would happen if a 150 foot rotor blade became detached from a SOTAHAWT? I wouldn’t be surprised if it could pierce through the roof of an enclosed baseball stadium. This also reflects in the cost of wind generated electricity. Because of the danger of accidents, SOTAHAWT components are quite significantly over-engineered. But normal safety margins could easily be justified in the design of the Wind Dam, and this will significantly lower costs.
  • An oft cited disadvantage of wind energy is that it has a very low energy density. The wind dam solves this problem. I don’t know what the water pressure is at the bottom of a hydro dam, but I know it’s huge. Water is heavy. But the fact that the energy density of water is high means that you need a lot of concrete to hold it back. Maybe your hydro dam is only as long as a couple of football fields, but it has 50 million dollars worth of concrete in it. But the wind dam is holding back something that is much lighter, so the walls do not have to be so massive. Maybe the circumference of the wind dam is 75 football fields, but since the walls are thin, they still have the same total amount of concrete: 50 million dollars worth. Warm up to the idea that the density of investment capital is directly proportional to the density of energy. Spreading energy out over a larger area does not raise the capital cost of the structure required to harvest that energy, it merely spreads the same capital cost out over the same larger area. Getting uptight about the low energy density in wind is like worrying about whether you should stack your money in a pile when you count it, or whether you should lay your dollar bills end to end across the bedroom floor. Actually, if you carpet your house with dollar bills, it looks like a lot more money than if you just put them in a greasy old stack with a rubber band. (But what about storms? Won’t the wind dam have to be massive and expensive in order to withstand storm winds? No. Consider the hydro dam. If more precipitation falls than you expected, you simply open the gates and let the water run through the dam. But exactly the same approach works for the wind dam. If there’s a hurricane, you simply open all the doors and let the wind pass through unimpeded. And if you have trouble making this approach work, remember that the light weight surfaces of a wind dam may be folded up, rolled up, retracted, or even laid down on the ground.)

Real Estate Sharing Variation

The wind dam can be built near areas that have residences or commercial activity, since there’s no possibility whatsoever of an accident, and since the noise is probably mostly contained inside the hallways. Holes can be cut into the walls so that roads can go through. In this case, the air is simply routed over the passageway in an aerodynamically friendly way. You could put a wind dam around a cornfield, and make a passageway big enough for a combine to get through.

Wind Vane Doors Variation

Instead of garage doors that roll up into the ceiling, maybe curved doors could be used instead to further concentrate flow in the hallways:

Circular Wind Dam Concentric Hallways with Wind Vane Doors

Very High Altitude Variation

Imagine an extremely tall (500 feet?) circular wind dam. It may have a single internal hallway, or it may have two concentric hallways. The very-high-altitude very-high-velocity wind causes the air inside the hallway(s) to also move at high velocity. This action may be accomplished in any of the ways depicted above: doors that open and close, curved vanes, or via some other appropriate aerodynamic components. However, once inside the hallway, the energy is transferred from the highest part of the hallway to a lower altitude region of the inside of the hallway. This may be achieved by blocking all altitudes within the hallway except for those that are (say) 300 feet or lower. Or it may be achieved by using nearly horizontal airfoils that direct the high-altitude energy downward toward the earth, or by some other kind aerodynamic hanky-panky. Bringing the high energy to the lower elevations allows the turbine rotors, gearboxes, and generators to be positioned at a lower altitude.

As stated in another post on this blog, Synopsis of the Best Design Tricks Developed to Date, if you can’t put the turbine up into the high altitude high energy wind, then bring the high altitude high energy wind down to the turbine. (I wrote that synopsis of best design tricks post in a hurry… don’t be disappointed because it’s actually not a very good post. Hope to have time to rewrite it later.)

Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam, Energy Exhange Variation

For ideas on how to design a very tall H Rotor (Straight-Bladed Darrieus), see High Speed Centrifugally Stable VAWT. Of course, any VAWT may be used with the energy exchanging version of the Wind Dam, and the Savonius may be a good choice as well.

Another approach would use H Rotors with a horizontal axis. One end of a rotor’s axis would be anchored to the smaller diameter wall, and the other to the larger diameter wall. The rotor’s axis should be parallel to a line that extends radially from the center of the circle formed by the smaller diameter wall segments. (This is, or course, the same point that is the center of the circle formed by the larger diameter wall segments.) And, or course, the H Rotor’s axis would also be parallel to the ground. Anyway, you stack these horizontal axis H Rotors one on top of the other so that they form an “aerodynamic barrier” that extends from the ground to the height of the two walls (smaller and larger diameter walls). Since the axes of these rotors are all parallel, they can all be connected with a common chain drive. The chain extends to a sprocket which is on the generator shaft, and the generator shaft is on the ground.

Furthermore, if it is determined that HAWT rotors would provide better efficiency or this design, simply replace the 3 bladed H Rotors above with walls that can rotate through an angle of 180 degrees. Now cut round holes in these walls, and install HAWT rotors in the holes. Now rotate the wall by 180 degrees if the wind passes through the holes in the direction that is opposite the direction that the HAWT rotors are intended to act upon.

Two Concentric Circular Wind Dams, Energy Exhange Variation

Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

I wonder if you could put some kind of a smooth geodesic dome structure on top of a Walmart to smooth out all the turbulence generated when wind pushes up vertically from the walls and tries to make the right angle turn to flowing across the roof. And I wonder if you could build a wind turbine that looks a little like the one above and put it on top of that dome roof.

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation with Alternating Diffusor Concentrators

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation with Alternating Diffusor Concentrators

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation with Alternating Diffusor Concentrators 2

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Circular Wind Dam

Controlling Vortex Shedding

Circular Wind Dam, Control of Vortex Shedding

Circular Wind Dam, Control of Vortex Shedding (closeup)

High Altitude Variation

Suppose the wind turbine blades extend from an elevation of 50 feet up to an elevation of 150 feet. We would like for the walls of the wind dam to reach an altitude of 300 feet. This allows us to extract some of the energy from higher energy density wind at altitude. There are a variety of ways I can think of to do this, but I’m wondering if all that is necessary is to make the walls of the wind dam lean in one direction or the other:

Wall Leans to Access High Energy Density Wind at Altitude

At first, this solution would seem to be sensitive to wind direction. But I’m wondering if maybe that isn’t the case. Imagine, for example, wind flowing from right to left in the diagram above. Intuitively, it would seem that high energy high altitude wind would be driven downward towards the earth by the slanted portion of the wall. This is reminiscent of a flow concentrator. But if instead wind flows from the left to the right, high energy high altitude wind ramps over the slanted portion of the wall, reminiscent of a flow diffuser. In this later case, wouldn’t some of its energy still be transferred to lower altitude wind, albeit through the action of suction rather than through the action of compression?

Of course, it is also important to note that a certain amount of the high energy high altitude wind will be deflected downward (toward the earth) even if the entire wall is vertical (rather than having the upper part slanted).

In any case, if a leaning wall proves to be useful, note that it is easy to build one by anchoring fabric to the guy wires of a tower:

Making Leaning Fabric Wall with Guyed Tubular Tower

Better Diagrams of High Altitude Variation?

I’m not much of an artist, and I’m using 2D software to boot. But here’s an attempt at rendering one of the variations that captures energy from high-altitude winds without using tall turbines:

Aerial View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam

One Section of Polygon of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam with Darrieus Rotors

Side View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam with Darrieus Rotors

Circular Wind Dam Pseudo-High-Altitude Variation #2

Aerial View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam Variation #2

Side View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam Variation #2 (wind blowing from right)

Side View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam Variation #2 (wind blowing from left)

Circular Wind Dam Pseudo-High-Altitude Variation #2 Stacked on top of Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Just stack the high altitude part:

High Altitude Part

On top of the low altitude part:

Circular Wind Dam, Rotated Energy Exchange Variation

Put the towers inside the brick walls, and make the lower ends of the tarps come approximately to the tops of the brick walls.

Circular Wind Dam Pseudo-High-Altitude Variation #3

Aerial View of Pseudo-High-Altitude Circular Wind Dam Variation #3

Using HAWTs instead of VAWTs

Of course, HAWTs may be substituted for VAWTs in the above designs. Just block the regions of accelerated flow with walls, cut holes in the walls, and put HAWT rotors into the holes. The only other necessary modification is that you’d have to figure out a way to “yaw” the HAWT by 180 degrees. This is so because the wind may flow in either direction through the hole, depending on the direction of the ambient wind.

Non-Circular Variation

Non-Circular Wind Dam Rotated Energy Exchange VariationIf a non-circular path is properly designed, the wind dam will still be equally effective (or almost equally effective) regardless of wind direction. For an explanation of how to design a non-circular path, see the earlier post 20 Megawatt Direct Drive Darrieus.

April 21, 2009

Multi-Speed Chain or Belt Drive

I’ve posted a number of wind turbine ideas to this blog that have chain or belt drives, so I want to dedicate this post to a multi-speed drive for these turbines. It’s too hard to draw chains, so the diagram below illustrates the idea using belts and pulleys:

Multi-Speed Chain Drive

The purple wheels are behind the yellow wheels. Each set of coaxial orange and green wheels are mounted on the same shaft. The green wheels engage the front belt, and the orange wheels engage the rear belts. The diagram shows all three sets of coaxial (orange and green) wheels engaging the two belts at the same time, but this is just for the sake of clearly illustrating the geometric relationships. In reality, only one set of coaxial (orange and green) wheels would be lowered down until they engage the two belts, and the other two sets of coaxial (orange and green) wheels would be raised up a little so that they do not engage the belts.

I guess this drive might be useful for other applications, such as for a multi-speed drive for a bicycle.

VAWT Forest

Many tall slender VAWT rotors are optimally dispersed and mechanically linked to drive a single generator.

Savonius Forest

Walmart Rooftop VAWT Forest

A weather protection shroud (not shown above) runs along the same path as the chain and protects components from rain and other weather. It may also be desirable to explore the option of using a rotating drive shaft to transmit power from turbine to turbine, and finally to the generator. I won’t draw this option, because I’ve already drawn it for one of the variations below.

In the following embodiment, rotors form a wall along the four sides of the roof. A tarp that is supported by a lightweight metal frame runs along each of the four sides of the roof and beneath the rotors. The tarp minimizes turbulence.

Walmart Rooftop VAWT Wall

Variable Scale Deployment – Rotors Suspended From Tubes

This embodiment is suitable both for utility scale deployment, such as a large VAWT Forest suspended over a cornfield, as well as for small scale deployment, such as a rooftop turbine for a residence.

One Row of VAWT Forest Suspended From Tubes

In this variation, rotors are suspended from a bunch of tube segments. The tubes are connected by flexible joints that allow them to approximate the troposkein shape of a cable. Suspended VAWT rotors drive a chain that runs inside the tubes along their longitudinal dimension. A universal joint connects the turbine rotor shaft to a second shaft above the turbine rotor. The weight of the turbine rotor keeps its shaft approximately vertical. However, in high winds the lower end of the rotor shaft can swing in the downwind direction, thus regulating power output and thrust load on the supporting tubes. The yielding rotor shaft also provides a low drag profile storm wind shut down mechanism. The drive chain bears only a relatively low torque load, since tubes carry the gravity load, and since the diameter of the turbine rotor is relatively small (so that the rotor turns at relatively high rpm). Whatever the chain load, it acts to lift the row of turbines up against the force of gravity, and it also cancels some of the gravity load supported by the tubes. Only a single chain runs down one row of turbines because the return path for the chain is through the next higher level of turbines:

Path of Drive Chain, VAWT Rotors Suspended From Tubes

Rotors Suspended From Cables, Counter-Rotating Torque Tubes

VAWT Forest With Counter-Rotating Drive

VAWT Forest With Counter-Rotating Drive (Zoomed In View)

The universal joints not only allow for transferring mechanical power to a slightly different axis, they also permit the rotor to yield in response to wind gusts, and to assume a nearly horizontal orientation when the machine is shut down for storm winds. Note that if the wind direction is at a right angle to the cable, then the cable will twist in response to rotor thrust. This does not present a problem because the orientation of the torque tubes is fixed with respect to the cable, and so the torque tubes move along with the cable when it twists. The orientation of the top rotor shaft is also fixed with respect to the cable, so it rotates along with the torque tubes when the cable twists.

Reciprocating Drive

It is also possible to use a reciprocating drive for all of these machines. In this case, a tube is pushed and pulled by a crankshaft. Perhaps the simplest (and least expensive) option would have the crankshaft driving a cable. I will add some drawings of these options if I have more time later.

For more related discussion, see VAWT Wall.

VAWT Wall

A great number of very tall and very slender VAWT rotors are arranged into a circular wall. All rotors are mechanically linked to a common drive mechanism (chain and sprocket?) so that all drive a single generator:

Savonius Wall

Alternatively, the wall is separated into (say) 30 degree arc segments. All of the rotors that are contained in a given 30 degree arc are mechanically linked to drive a single generator, but each arc drives a separate generator. This way the arcs that are largely parallel to wind velocity will not drag down the arcs that are largely orthogonal to wind velocity. (And those arcs that are largely parallel to wind velocity may still produce a small amount of power.)

Of course, the same idea may be applied to any type of tall slender vertical axis wind turbine.

Suppose 2 bladed H rotors or 2 bladed Darrieus rotors are used. In this case the rotational angle of each rotor may be phase shifted somewhat with respect to its neighbors, and the power output of the machine will be very smooth.

Of course, it isn’t necessary for the wall to be circular in shape. I’m guessing that a circular wall would produce the most energy and the highest capacity factor at sites that have completely unpredictable wind directions. But if a site has a somewhat predictable wind direction, then the wall can definately be shaped to take advantage of the prevailing wind direction. Also, the wall may assume a non-circular shape in order to make its way around some obstruction like a barn or something like that.

Note also that the smaller the rotor diameter, the higher the rotor rpm! This characteristic might allow for eliminating the gearbox (or at least for reducing the speed change required, and thereby increasing the efficiency of mechanical power transmission.)

Seems like this machine may turn out to be suitable for almost any application you can think of – from small to gigantic utility scale wind turbines! Imagine a wall of these rotors on top of a Walmart. The rotors could be small diameter, fairly tall, and made of plastic. Even if a rotor flies apart it shouldn’t create a hazard since its only light weight plastic. And it certainly seems like this idea would be just absolutely perfect for low cost, clean energy in the third world! Imagine a machine like this driving the low-tech water transport pump I posted earlier:

Dirt Cheap Ultra-Simple Efficient Third World Water Transport Pump

Muti-Speed Transmission

Yawing VAWT Wall

This machine doesn’t need a yaw drive, as its yaw angle is self regulating:

Downwind Yawing Savonius Wall

April 15, 2009

Dirt Cheap Ultra-Simple Efficient Third World Water Transport Pump

Here is a surprisingly efficient and extremely simple pump for transporting clean drinking water from one place to another. The diagrams below show how to move water in the horizontal direction, but the pump may also be designed to move water from a low elevation to a high elevation. (It can pump water up a hill.)

Third World Water Transport Pump

The rotating arms of this pump are probably driven by electric motors. An inexpensive micro-computer keeps the arms synchronized so that each arm is always 120 degrees out of phase with its neighbors. (It should be easy to superimpose a clock synchronizing pulse onto the power lines that go alongside the hose to feed the electric motors. In this case, each microcomputer that controls each motor operates independently, and there’s no need for the micro-computers to communicate with one another.) Though I can’t prove it mathematically, I think the efficiency of this pump will be quite good. Generation of turbulence in the water should be about as low as it could be. And besides this, what other losses are present in the system? The heat that is generated by the motors will not be more than with any other kind of pump, and the friction with the hose is low because the hose is supported by pulley wheels.

Here’s a sequence of images that show the motion of the hose in detail. If the arms rotate with clockwise polarity, then water will be transported from right to left:

Detailed Motion of Third World Water Transport Pump

Variations on this idea may include a long belt that mechanically links the rotating arms together. (This is probably not a very good idea, but it might be a good choice if a completely mechanical wind pumping system is desired.) Also, PVC pipe may replace the hose. In this case a PVC segment is connected to its neighbors with a flexible joint (like or short piece of hose), or else the diameter of the end of its neighbor pipe is large enough for the end of the PVC segment in question to extend to a point inside of the end of the neighbor pipe.

The diagrams show the arms rotating in the plane of the hose or pipe, but they may rotate in the orthogonal plane instead. In this case they mimick the motion of the High Efficiency Helical Liquid Pump. But maybe the best way to move the hose is to use a crankshaft with a “piston rod” that has a fixed connection to the hose:

Third World Water Transport Pump, Crankshaft Version

April 13, 2009

Third World Deep Well Water Pump

Third World Deep Well Water Pump

Any type of electric pump circulates water until its velocity reaches the value that closes the hydraulic ram pump valve. While the ram pump valve is closed, water is pulled in through the check valve. The electric pump at the top operates continuously, and suffers no damage when the ram pump valve closes because of the air buffer at the top left corner of the diagram. Water eventually absorbs air, but the air is easily replenished when the system isn’t working by opening the drain valve.

This system may work even better with a piston pump like the kinds that were on the old fashioned water pumping windmills. Note that in this case the piston is at the top of the well rather than at the bottom.

Third World Deep Well Water Pump (Piston Driven Variation)

The pumping system proposed here has high maintenance components at the top of the well. It also requires low startup torque. To see this, simply imagine an old fashioned water pumping windmill. In order for the windmill to start working, the wind must reach a velocity sufficient for providing enough torque to life the entire column of water in the well. If the well is 800 feet deep, that’s one whale of a lot of torque! But notice that the lightest breeze could start the counterclockwise motion of water in the diagram above. The system will start pumping when the counterclockwise motion reaches the velocity required to close the hydraulic ram pump valve. Of course, it won’t pump much water at this windspeed, but it will pump just the same. As the wind picks up, water is delivered to the storage tank at a faster and faster rate.

Shock Buffering Mechanism

An air chamber is required to buffer the mechanical shock that occurs when the ram pump valve closes. But I thought of a possible way to eliminate the shock absorber (air chamber). This system would close the ram pump valve “gently”:

Shock Buffering Hydraulic Ram Pump Value

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