# Salient White Elephant

## April 26, 2009

### Segmented Circular Wind Dam With Adjustable Flow Accelerators

Almost all of the AeroArchitecture (non-turbine) part of this machine is fixed. The only part of the flow manipulating structure that is not fixed is the curved blue panels. The rotational angle of these panels is regulated by the turbine controller, and is a function of wind direction. I have drawn these panels at what I believe to be approximately the correct rotational angles given wind direction, but of course this is only an intuitive guess. I think some detailed aerodynamic modeling will be required to determine the optimum angles for the panels. However, let me explain the reasoning behind my guess.

Let’s begin by pretending that the adjustable panels and the turbines are not present, and that the circular wall does not have segments cut out of it. In other words, the wind is flowing around a very tall round wall. In this case the high pressure region will be around the most upwind part of the wall. The flow accelerates to get around the wall, and I think the lowest pressure will be approximately at the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock positions. The flow about the rest of the wall is oscillatory and unstable. Vortices are shed in alternating fashion, first from one side of the wall and then from the other. For example, the flow may detach at about 4:30, and a clockwise vortex (with a vertical axis) will spin off of the wall at that point. Then the flow will detach at about 7:30, and a counter-clockwise vortex will spin off the wall at that point. Then the pattern will repeat. So the first thing to notice is that it may be desirable to add adjustable panels at 2:30, 4:30, 7:30, and 10:30 in order to prevent the vortex shedding. I have not drawn these panels because I don’t know if they will actually be necessary. Remember that the wind is being de-energized by the 4 turbines, and maybe this will be sufficient for stabilizing the flow. In any case, let’s forget about the vortex shedding for a moment, and consider the system as depicted above (with the segments removed from the wall, the curved adjustable blue panels, and the turbines present just as depicted in the diagram).

As I said, the high pressure occurs at the 12 o’clock position. As the diagram shows, the wind is flowing more or less straight at the 12 o’clock turbine. In this case, both the adjustable curved panels and the curved parts of the wall that extend downstream from the turbine act to concentrate and accelerate the flow through the 12 o’clock turbine.

Now let’s consider the 3 and 9 o’clock turbines. I am reasoning that the wind is moving slow and is at a relatively high pressure in the regions just inside the wall near these two turbines. This is true because the wind has been forced to flow through a very large cross-section inside the wall, and also because the wind has been de-energized somewhat as it passed through the 12 o’clock turbine. On the other hand, the velocity is at a maximum and the pressure at a minimum in the areas that are outside of the wall and outside of the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock turbines. This is true because the wind has had to speed up to get around the wall, and also because it has yet to pass through any turbines, and so it hasn’t had energy extracted from it yet. Based on all this reasoning, I have elected to orient the adjustable panels so as to further encourage the flow that already wants to happen anyway – that is, the flow from slow high pressure inside the dam to fast low pressure outside the dam. When you consider what normally happens when wind flows through a turbine, you see that it is not exactly as I have described:

• Flow through a traditional turbine is from high velocity and high pressure to low velocity and low pressure.
• The flow that I just described is from low velocity and high pressure to high velocity and low pressure.

So maybe my reasoning is flawed. Of course, the rules will be changed when flow is manipulated, and in this case we are not only manipulating the flow, but we are manipulating it a great deal with a very very large structure. So I guess the only way to figure out whether my reasoning is correct is to build a sophisticated aerodynamic model and see what it says. Anyway… if you take a look at the hypothetical path of flow I’ve drawn near the left side of the diagram, you can see that the flow will be exiting the trailing edge of the adjustable panel at high velocity, just like the way air exits the trailing edge of an airplane wing. So I am reasoning that this flow will draw the dead air out of the inside of the dam and through the turbine.

Now for the 6 o’clock turbine. This one seems pretty straightforward. On the one hand, you might expect that the adjustable panels and the fixed curved parts of the wall that extend upwind of the 6 o’clock turbine should together look exactly like the flow accelerating structure around the 12 o’clock turbine. The reason I haven’t drawn it that way is because assuming we are able to successfully prevent the flow from detaching from the wall and spinning into a vortex, then the flow will be wanting to curve in the downstream direction as it continues its journey away from the wind dam in the downwind direction. In this case, the panels need to be rotated toward this path somewhat so that the flow doesn’t collide with the most downwind end of the adjustable panel and spin off of that sharp edge in a vortex.